Archery is the art, practice, or skill of propelling arrows with the use of a bow, from Latin arcus. Historically, archery has been used for hunting and combat, while in modern times, its main use is that of a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is typically known as an "archer" or a "bowman", and one who is fond of or an expert at archery can be referred to as a toxophilite.
Revolution in Archery
Archery, one of the oldest sports still practiced, is closely linked to the development of civilisation. As a cultural advance, it was comparable to the discovery of fire and the invention of the wheel.
Archery in battle
In 1200 BC the Hittites and Assyrians shot their bows from chariots, becoming fearsome opponents in battle. They made their bows with tendon, horn and wood and also developed a new re-curved shape. This made their bows shorter and more powerful, making them easier to handle for an archer on horseback.
Archery was the favourite sport of the Egyptian pharaohs during the 18th dynasty (1567-1320 BC). Many centuries later, some of the earliest recorded archery tournaments took place during the Zhou (Chou) dynasty (1027- 256 BC) in China. Such events were attended by Chinese nobility. Much later, English writers honoured the longbow for famous contributions to their country’s victories in the battles of Crécy, Agincourt and Poitiers.
- Armguard: A guard that, when an arrow is shot, protects the arm from being hit by the bowstring.
- Arrow: Arrows have a maximum diameter of 9.3 millimetres, although, for faster flight and less wind drift, most are as small as 5.5 millimetres. Each arrow must be marked with the competitor's name or initials, while archers use distinctive colors for the nocks and vanes to distinguish their arrows.
- Bow: The bow´s draw weight is around 22 kilograms (48 pounds) for men and over 17 kg (38 lbs.) for women. The bow consists of a riser and two limbs.
- Bowstring: The string of a bow, Most strings are made of high-tech polyethylene fibers, which are stronger than steel.
- Chest Guard: Plastic or leather, to keep clothing out of the way and to protect against a bowstring at release from injuring the body.
- Finger tab or shooting glove: A flat piece of leather worn as a guard to protect the finger when the arrow releases.
- Fletching: The real or artificial feathers at the back of an arrow designed to make it fly straight.
- Hand grip or handle: The handle of the bow.
- Quiver: A container for holding arrows, usually worn around the waist.
- Nock: The attachment on the rear end of an arrow that holds it in place on the bowstring.
- Sight: A mechanical device placed on the bow to help the archer aim; also called a "bowsight".
- Stabiliser: A weight mounted on the bow to stabilise it during and after a shot.
- Target: The target is 1.22 metres (48 inches) in diameter, but, to the archer, standing those 70 metres (86.4 yards) away, it appears about the size of a thumbtack held at arm's length. The centre of the target stands 1.3 metres above the ground. The centre ring is 12.2 centimetres (4.8 in.) in diameter. There is also a smaller X10-ring, which is 6.1 centimetres (2.4 in.) in diameter.